Arduino based Plant LED Lighting – Iteration 1

After years of procrastination, the itch to get into hydroponics needed attention. Before jumping headfirst into the unknown, a quick experiment to see how the plants responded to neopixel LED strips was in order. As such, I’ve put the MEAN stack exploration on hold.

Objective

Can the neopixel LED strips provide enough lighting to grow herbs and other leafy vegetables?

Putting it Together

The following diagram illustrates the wiring.  The LM35 when used with other analog inputs leads to erratic readings. The capacitor stabilizes things.

The software is straight forward with the xbee operating using AT mode rather than API mode.  For now, I used modbus to communicate to Mango and for giggles VT-Scada. More on that in a future post as the IIoT speak I hear from certain vendors — not the two mentioned–make me cringe knowing what they have under the hood.

Software Feature List

• set time from host via modbus  or terminal console
• set lights on time via modbus or terminal console (default 18 hrs on)
• set lights off time via modbus or terminal console (default 6 hrs off)
• set duty cycle via modbus or terminal console
• set duty cycle period via via modbus or terminal console
• get temperature via via modbus or terminal console
• get soil moisture via via modbus or terminal console
• force the lights on or off via modbus or terminal console
• save/load/restores settings to/from EEPROM

Modbus was used as I already had a SCADA host running. It could have been xbee API or bluetooth. Having done both, this is relatively easy to refactor the code later.

The code can be found at https://github.com/chrapchp/PlantLEDLighting. Not the prettiest code yet it it does the job for this experiment.

Periodically changing the red/blue ratio aka duty cycle between 70-95% red with the remaining in blue light tainted the experiment. Regardless, it is logged in the SCADA/HMI host for further analysis.  Interestingly, the research around  LED-based plant lighting is growing along with plenty of do-it-yourselfers experimenting.

Lessons Learned

On the Mega front, the Chinese knock-off ended up with causing more trouble that they’re worth. Problems included the following:

•  voltage regulator fried
• TX1 via the header pin did not work
• headers were loose
• finding a driver took extra goggling

Needless to say,  I ended up purchasing the real one.

Wiring xbees on breadboards gets old fast. The current setup consists of switches to commission/reset and  a potentiometer to vary the input voltage for testing a device. Nevertheless, I  purchased the wireless connectivity kit  (S2C) and the pro version of the xbee  to facilitate the configuration and program some custom functionality in the xbee in the future. Highly recommended if xbee development is on the radar. BTW, digikey Canadian or US site offer great service and fast delivery. I’ve ordered from them several times.

Observations

Herbs

The basil and oregano took a couple of weeks to germinate followed with a slow growth rate.  In contrast to what others are doing, the growth rate falls far short with expectation.

Leafy Vegetables

The kale and arugula germinated in 3 days and grew relatively fast. The weak stems could be attributed to the LED’s . I’ve planted some outside as well and will compare the stem sizes with the indoor ones.

Minor Changes

The addition of a fan to create a light  breeze led to stronger stems. After a couple of weeks of circulation, the arugula and kale stems seemed stronger. The basil grew and looked healthy yet remained small. When compared to their outdoor counterparts, the healthier looking indoor basil prevailed.

Next Steps

There seems to be some confusion out there between lumens and pars. I read about people only measuring lumens for plants and scratch my head.  Consequently,  I like ChilLED‘s pitch in positioning their lighting products as well an intro-101 from Lush Lighting.

Incidentally, a buzz exists stating the effects of UV could lead  to ‘certain’ plants to produce more THC. Note, I am not interested growing those plants and just want to grow edibles all year round.  At any rate,  I think the root cause revolves around the low LED pars and power rather than the effects of different soil, nutrients, and seeds.

In short, I’m considering using ChilLED for sourcing my lighting needs provided that  controlling the output of the various channels without using their controller remains feasible.  Note  growmay5 provides some interesting vlogs on this as well as other topics around LED plant lighting.

Altogether, I’m satisfied with experiment and how quickly I could mash up a solution. Hydroponics is the next step with better LED lighting and queued for later this year as a project.

Kale

Temporary setup

Slapped together hardware

Bike LEDVest

I’ve been tossing this project in my head for a few years. I signed up when the Myo Armband came out on kickstarter and figured I could make use of it one day.   When I purchased the the Apple Watch, then that got the wheels in motion to build an LEDVest.

Some of the goals I wanted to achieve included the following:

• Learn the iOS development (Swift language)
• Drill down on Bluetooth LE development
• Persist information on iCloud and retrieve from different devices
• Create something useful and provides context based information to others while riding my bicycle at night
• Explore iOS HealthKit and MapKit

Prototype

My wife did all the sewing. The LED’s are so bright that the iPhone camera does not do it justice inside. Many people commented from motorists, pedestrians, and cycles on how cool this vest was.

It took a lot of effort but it was a nice diversion from the day job. Learning a new programming language, organizing the code so that the appropriate level of abstractions exist to easily add new features, creating an application level protocol to control the LEDVest, and designing and building simple hardware bumped up the fun factor.

Using my Apple Watch, I can speak text to display and I send it to the LEDVest to display. If I am annoyed at a stop light, I tend to keep it safe. e.g. “Smog sucks”.  So far the software periodically displays the temperature from the hardware, along with the WTI price and Canadian currency via the yahoo finance API. If I loose connectivity to the iPhone, the arduino portion fails-safe and displays the stop symbol and posts the temperature every 30 seconds.

I’ll talk about the implementation details later.

Making it work.

I got everything to function with a rather messy board setup as shown below.

The output from the Arduino shows the delta T between messages received from the end-devices.  It is pretty close to the calculated ones. I will change the duration to be 15 minutes later on but for debugging purposes 10s intervals for pin sleep is tolerable.

Host Software

Rather than re-invent the wheel, I thought there should be software out there that provides SCADA/HMI functionality for free. It is a commoditized activity by now.  After combing the web, I stumbled and settled on Mango, an open-source M2M solution. Mango is Java based that integrates with MySQL and runs under Apache. All good stuff so far.  The web site describes the features and how to install the software.  I liked the data historian, alarms, and the various types data points including calling external web based sources. I set one to get the external temperature at the airport and using regex to scrape of the temperature form the HTML. All within Mango.

I found it relatively easy to get going. One thing I had to do was write a Modbus function 6 (write a single register) for the Arduino in C as I want to send commands to the arduino. i.e. set the time for example.

The diagram below shows some of the points I configured to handle the home energy monitoring. I used ISA motivated nomenclature to name the tags. I may revert to a human readable tags as I won’t have hundreds of points and becomes cryptic after a while.

Data logging for each data point is configurable as shown in the screen shot below. The example is for the temperature in the basement. All of this info is in the MySQL database from which one can chose to slice and dice the data later on using external tools.

As for graphical objects, one can create custom objects e.g. dials, meters, etc. and assign tags to them. When this is all done I will add an iPhone friendly UI to this so I can interact with the home energy system on the road. One thing that Mango does is allow me to work on my solution rather than re-inventing the wheel.  I know have the facility to hook up multiple ardduinos and focus on the fun stuff which is the embedded side of things.

Prototyping – Part II

There is not much to this. A protoshield, the arduino, and a breadboard. Note the current transformer (donut). I have two of those to use in the panel.

The first test was to plugging in a 60 W lamp to see what the measurement came too. I expected around 0.5 Amps and 60 watts. I was not disappointed.  I proceeded to plug in a toaster and put the ammeter in the circuit to see if my RMS current matched its RMS measurement. The photo below shows a .4% error. Not bad. Note the drop in the line voltage.

In Canada, the nominal line voltage is 120Vrms. I do measure the voltage as part of my power calculations and when I saw the 113 V I checked with the multi-meter and it read the same.  Assuming a 120 V reference would lead to errors in the power calculations. I should not be running a toaster outside my 20Amp line in the kitchen. I created a suicide cord that threads through the current transformer and is basically an extension cord. It plugs into a 15Amp line with other loads. 120 down to 113 is just over a 5% difference from the nominal line voltage. I am trying to rationalize why such a large dip. Anyway, the power measurement works.

Crest Factor

The crest factor is the the ratio between peak and RMS signals. I do compute that and it gives me an idea on the shape of the waveform. A sinewave should have a crest factor of $\sqrt{2}$. The 60 W lightbulb had a crest factor of 1.40 for the voltage 1.40 for the current. Close enough.

I plugged in a variable speed drill and ran it a low RPM. As expected, the power factor went down to .27 with most of the power becoming reactive at 104 vars. The real power was just a mere 29.5 watts. The crest factor for the voltage was 1.39 and for the current, 3.96. That is expected as the duty cycle is changed to control the speed. For us home owners, we get charged for the real power consumed.  In industrial environments, the power company would penalize you for running with such an awful power factor.

I can’t wait to plug all this in the main panel see what the overall power consumption profile is. I expect the power factor to be closer to one.

Next Steps

Computing C02 emissions is trivial as well as projecting cost of power usage.  I would like to have that wired next to the power panel and displayed on the LCD sooner than later.  On the other hand, I need figure out the zigbee side of things as well as how to best do the data logging.  I can easily purchase another arduino later and focus on getting this prototype soldered on something more permanent.